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Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Located in south-western Uganda, at the junction of the plain and mountain forests, Bwindi Park covers 32,000 ha and is known for its exceptional biodiversity, with more than 160 species of trees and over 100 species of ferns. Many types of birds and butterflies can also be found there, as well as many endangered species, including the mountain gorilla.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Forêt impénétrable de Bwindi

Situé dans le sud-ouest de l’Ouganda, à la jonction des forêts de plaine et de montagne, le parc de Bwindi s’étend sur plus de 32 000 ha et présente une très riche biodiversité avec plus de 160 espèces d’arbres et plus de 100 espèces de fougères. Il abrite également de nombreuses espèces d’oiseaux et de papillons, ainsi que plusieurs espèces menacées, dont le gorille de montagne.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

الغابة العذراء بويندي

يقع منتزه بويندي في جنوب غرب اوغاندا عند ملتقى غابات السهل والجبل. وهو يمتد على اكثر من 32000 هكتار ويوفر تنوعًا بيولوجيًا غنيًا جداً يتألف من اكثر من 160 نوعًا من الاشجار واكثر من 100 نوع من السرخسيات. كما يأوي أيضًا العديد من فصائل العصافير والفراشات، بالاضافة الى عدة فصائل مهددة منها غوريلا الجبل.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

布恩迪难以穿越的国家公园

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Национальный парк Бвинди-Импенитрейбл («Непроходимый лес Бвинди»)

Расположенный в юго-западной части Уганды в переходной зоне между равнинами и горными лесами, Бвинди-Импенитрейбл занимает площадь 32 тыс.га. Парк известен благодаря исключительно высокому биоразнообразию. Здесь произрастает более 160 видов деревьев и свыше 100 видов папоротников, обитает множество птиц и бабочек, отмечено много редких и исчезающих редких видов, включая горную гориллу.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Bosque impenetrable de Bwindi

Situado al sudoeste de Uganda, en el punto de convergencia de los bosques de planicie y de montaña, el parque de Bwindi tiene una superficie de 32.000 hectáreas y es reputado por su rica biodiversidad. Posee 160 especies de árboles y más de 100 clases de helechos, numerosos tipos de pájaros y mariposas, y varias especies animales en peligro de extinción como el gorila de montaña.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ブウィンディ原生国立公園
Nationaal Park Bwindi Impenetrable

Bwindi ligt in het zuidwesten van Oeganda, op de kruising van de vlakte en de bergbossen. Het Nationale park beslaat 32.000 hectare en staat bekend om zijn uitzonderlijke biodiversiteit, met meer dan 160 soorten bomen en meer dan 100 soorten varens. Verder zijn er veel vogel- en vlindersoorten te vinden, evenals vele bedreigde soorten, waaronder de berggorilla. Het park is een model voor het land — en mogelijk ook voor de hele Oost-Afrikaanse regio — vanwege integratie van duurzaam beheer van hulpbronnen. Er is echter nog steeds behoefte aan een betere bescherming van primaten op lange termijn.

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch

Outstanding Universal Value
Brief synthesis

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, covering 32,092 ha, is one of the largest areas in East Africa which still has Afromontane lowland forest extending to well within the montane forest belt. Located on the eastern edge of the Albertine Rift Valley and believed to be a Pleistocene refugium, the property is a biodiversity hotspot with possibly the greatest number of tree species for its altitude in East Africa. It is also host to a rich fauna including a number of endemic butterflies and one of the richest mammalian assemblages in Africa. Home to almost half of the world’s mountain gorilla population, the property represents a conservation frontline as an isolated forest of outstanding biological richness surrounded by an agricultural landscape supporting one of the highest rural population densities in tropical Africa. Community benefits arising from the mountain gorilla and other ecotourism may be the only hope for the future conservation of this unique site.

Criterion (vii): As a key site for biodiversity on the continent, the species richness occurring in this site, recognised also under criteria (x) below, can be considered as a superlative natural phenomenon.

Criterion (x): Due to its diverse habitats ranging from 1,160 to 2,706 m in altitude, location at the intersection of the Albertine, Congo Basin and Eastern Africa ecological zones, and probable role as a Pleistocene refugium, Bwindi is the most important area in Uganda for species due to an exceptional diversity that includes many Albertine Rift endemics. This forest is believed to be a mere remnant of a very large forest which once covered much of western Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The property has the highest diversity of tree species (over 200 species including 10 endemics) and ferns (some 104 species) in East Africa, and maybe the most important forest in Africa for montane forest butterflies with 202 species (84% of the country’s total), including eight Albertine endemics. The forest is very significant as a home to almost half of the population (about 340) of the critically endangered mountain gorilla. With over 347 species of forest birds recorded in the Park,at least 70 out of 78 montane forest bird species occurring in the Albertine Rift region are found in the forest, and 22 of the 36 endemics. Overall, Bwindi hosts numerous globally threatened species including high-profile mammals such as mountain gorilla, chimpanzee, l’Hoest’s monkey and African elephant; birds such as African green broadbill, Grauer’s swamp warbler, Turner’s Eremomela, Chapin’s flycatcher and Shelley’s crimson-wing; and butterflies such as African giant swallowtail and Cream-banded swallowtail.

Integrity

The property is an oasis of forest situated inside one of the most densely populated rural areas in the country with more than 350 people per square km. This means that there is no possibility for a buffer zone at the forest edge apart from a buffer of 4 km 2 which was donated by communities at the southern end of the Park to safeguard the site. It is recognized that the site is reduced in size and does not have an ideal boundary configuration, as the boundary area ratio is high and the area of park/people contact requires intensive management. There are several narrow corridors between sectors that will create difficulties for movement of wildlife. Due to human disturbance and clearing of vegetation there is little that can be done to expand the area around these constrictions.

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The Park boundary is clearly delineated with planted trees and concrete pillars as markers along areas where rivers do not form the boundary. This clear boundary line has mostly stopped encroachment by the local communities, although with increasing population, agricultural encroachment will remain a potential threat. However, community participation programmes have enabled the neighbouring communities to derive various benefits from ecotourism and regulated plant resource use which significantly contributes to improving their livelihoods. There are no commercial activities inside the property other than ecotourism. Bwindi shares a common border with the small (c. 900 ha) protected Sarambwe forest in DRC, into which the gorillas and other species enter at times. This provides an opportunity for population dispersal and gene flow, and an avenue for international collaboration in conserving the region’s endemic and endangered flora and fauna.

Protection and management requirements

Managed by Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA, UWA replaced Uganda National Parks (UNP) that was the management authority of the property at the time of designation), Bwindi is protected under the provisions of various national laws (The Constitution (1995), Uganda Wildlife Act Cap 200 of 2000, National Environment Act (2000), Local Government Act (1997), The Land Act (1998), the Forest and Tree Planting Act 2003 and the Uganda Wildlife Policy (1999). All these laws mentioned above were not in place by the time the property was inscribed as a World Heritage Site. However, the Uganda National Parks Act (1952), and the Game Act were already in place to support its creation) and international conventions (Convention of Biological Diversity 1992 (CBD), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the Ramsar convention 1971 and the World Heritage Convention 1972). The site has an approved management plan and is highly respected and supported by local communities as a conservation site. The property attracts substantial support from a number of local and international NGOs. The Park has a permanent research institute located within the site which is engaged in research and continued monitoring of the site’s integrity. These factors as well as strong political support provide an assurance for the property’s long-term protection and conservation. The management of the site has developed ecotourism programmes that support community livelihoods, a major reason for community support. The Park is a model for integration of community sustainable resource management in the country and possibly in the East African Region. However, there are still strong long-term needs for greater primate protection given the new tendency of trafficking mountain gorilla babies and chimpanzees. As the mountain gorilla is so closely related to people, it is also threatened by transmission of human diseases as a result of tourism activities. UWA is closely monitoring these threats and working with stakeholders and NGOs to mitigate these threats. Continued enhancement of conservation is required in law enforcement and monitoring.

Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation

New — Online Hunter Education Course

From April 15, 2020 until June 30, 2020, you can complete all the requirements to earn a NYS hunter education certificate online. Anyone age 11 or older can take the online course. You must be a New York State resident. If you successfully complete the course, and pass the final exam, you will receive your NY hunter education certificate. The cost of the course is $19.95. The course can be found on the hunter-ed website

Additional requirements for bowhunting big game: If hunting deer or bear with a bow, you must also take a Bowhunter Education course.

*New Hunter Education classes are added continuously throughout the year. Most of the classes are taught between March and September.

*Hunter Education classes are not usually offered between November 1st — February 28th.

*Do not wait until just before the hunting season to take a class. Classes fill quickly, so it is important to sign up early.

Hunting in New York State

New York State contains an extraordinary diversity of wildlife that make a unique contribution to the biodiversity and recreational resources of the state. Wildlife provides rewarding outdoor experiences throughout the state in the form of wildlife viewing, hunting and fishing. According to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), hunting is among the most popular forms of wildlife recreation in the state, drawing nearly 700,000 New Yorkers and over 50,000 out-of-staters. Hunting is a safe and economically important outdoor pursuit, helping to balance wildlife populations, promote family traditions, while fostering an understanding and respect for the environment and the complexity in which it functions.

To be a successful hunter, one must learn about wildlife biology and observe the habits of the species they are pursuing. Many sons and daughters go out each year with their parents to learn the necessary skills of identifying signs of wildlife in the forest and what those different signs mean, such as a rub on a small tree from the antlers of a buck and how long ago the mark was left. Specially-designated seasons for youth hunts are offered, where children (age 12-15) and their guardians hunt without pressure from the regular season.

All New York State hunters must pass one or more state licensed sportsman’s education classes before they can purchase a hunting license. All hunters must report any deer, turkey or bear they harvested along with the sex, date and county. This reporting system helps the NYS DEC to establish statewide population estimates for these species and monitor the hunting program and allowable harvest. Hunters are avid supporters of conservation efforts with the money generated from their licensing fees and taxes on firearms and ammunition going to wildlife species conservation. In addition, hunters generate over 1.5 billion dollars in economic activity in the state.

Hunting within State Parks

New York state lands offer many places to hunt, including 81 parks, 3 historic sites, 3 golf courses and 50 boat launches that provide chances to hunt a variety of different wildlife including big game, small game, turkey, furbearers, waterfowl and migratory bird species.

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Located in south-western Uganda, at the junction of the plain and mountain forests, Bwindi Park covers 32,000 ha and is known for its exceptional biodiversity, with more than 160 species of trees and over 100 species of ferns. Many types of birds and butterflies can also be found there, as well as many endangered species, including the mountain gorilla.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Forêt impénétrable de Bwindi

Situé dans le sud-ouest de l’Ouganda, à la jonction des forêts de plaine et de montagne, le parc de Bwindi s’étend sur plus de 32 000 ha et présente une très riche biodiversité avec plus de 160 espèces d’arbres et plus de 100 espèces de fougères. Il abrite également de nombreuses espèces d’oiseaux et de papillons, ainsi que plusieurs espèces menacées, dont le gorille de montagne.

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Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

الغابة العذراء بويندي

يقع منتزه بويندي في جنوب غرب اوغاندا عند ملتقى غابات السهل والجبل. وهو يمتد على اكثر من 32000 هكتار ويوفر تنوعًا بيولوجيًا غنيًا جداً يتألف من اكثر من 160 نوعًا من الاشجار واكثر من 100 نوع من السرخسيات. كما يأوي أيضًا العديد من فصائل العصافير والفراشات، بالاضافة الى عدة فصائل مهددة منها غوريلا الجبل.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

布恩迪难以穿越的国家公园

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Национальный парк Бвинди-Импенитрейбл («Непроходимый лес Бвинди»)

Расположенный в юго-западной части Уганды в переходной зоне между равнинами и горными лесами, Бвинди-Импенитрейбл занимает площадь 32 тыс.га. Парк известен благодаря исключительно высокому биоразнообразию. Здесь произрастает более 160 видов деревьев и свыше 100 видов папоротников, обитает множество птиц и бабочек, отмечено много редких и исчезающих редких видов, включая горную гориллу.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Bosque impenetrable de Bwindi

Situado al sudoeste de Uganda, en el punto de convergencia de los bosques de planicie y de montaña, el parque de Bwindi tiene una superficie de 32.000 hectáreas y es reputado por su rica biodiversidad. Posee 160 especies de árboles y más de 100 clases de helechos, numerosos tipos de pájaros y mariposas, y varias especies animales en peligro de extinción como el gorila de montaña.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ブウィンディ原生国立公園
Nationaal Park Bwindi Impenetrable

Bwindi ligt in het zuidwesten van Oeganda, op de kruising van de vlakte en de bergbossen. Het Nationale park beslaat 32.000 hectare en staat bekend om zijn uitzonderlijke biodiversiteit, met meer dan 160 soorten bomen en meer dan 100 soorten varens. Verder zijn er veel vogel- en vlindersoorten te vinden, evenals vele bedreigde soorten, waaronder de berggorilla. Het park is een model voor het land — en mogelijk ook voor de hele Oost-Afrikaanse regio — vanwege integratie van duurzaam beheer van hulpbronnen. Er is echter nog steeds behoefte aan een betere bescherming van primaten op lange termijn.

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch

Outstanding Universal Value
Brief synthesis

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, covering 32,092 ha, is one of the largest areas in East Africa which still has Afromontane lowland forest extending to well within the montane forest belt. Located on the eastern edge of the Albertine Rift Valley and believed to be a Pleistocene refugium, the property is a biodiversity hotspot with possibly the greatest number of tree species for its altitude in East Africa. It is also host to a rich fauna including a number of endemic butterflies and one of the richest mammalian assemblages in Africa. Home to almost half of the world’s mountain gorilla population, the property represents a conservation frontline as an isolated forest of outstanding biological richness surrounded by an agricultural landscape supporting one of the highest rural population densities in tropical Africa. Community benefits arising from the mountain gorilla and other ecotourism may be the only hope for the future conservation of this unique site.

Criterion (vii): As a key site for biodiversity on the continent, the species richness occurring in this site, recognised also under criteria (x) below, can be considered as a superlative natural phenomenon.

Criterion (x): Due to its diverse habitats ranging from 1,160 to 2,706 m in altitude, location at the intersection of the Albertine, Congo Basin and Eastern Africa ecological zones, and probable role as a Pleistocene refugium, Bwindi is the most important area in Uganda for species due to an exceptional diversity that includes many Albertine Rift endemics. This forest is believed to be a mere remnant of a very large forest which once covered much of western Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The property has the highest diversity of tree species (over 200 species including 10 endemics) and ferns (some 104 species) in East Africa, and maybe the most important forest in Africa for montane forest butterflies with 202 species (84% of the country’s total), including eight Albertine endemics. The forest is very significant as a home to almost half of the population (about 340) of the critically endangered mountain gorilla. With over 347 species of forest birds recorded in the Park,at least 70 out of 78 montane forest bird species occurring in the Albertine Rift region are found in the forest, and 22 of the 36 endemics. Overall, Bwindi hosts numerous globally threatened species including high-profile mammals such as mountain gorilla, chimpanzee, l’Hoest’s monkey and African elephant; birds such as African green broadbill, Grauer’s swamp warbler, Turner’s Eremomela, Chapin’s flycatcher and Shelley’s crimson-wing; and butterflies such as African giant swallowtail and Cream-banded swallowtail.

Integrity

The property is an oasis of forest situated inside one of the most densely populated rural areas in the country with more than 350 people per square km. This means that there is no possibility for a buffer zone at the forest edge apart from a buffer of 4 km 2 which was donated by communities at the southern end of the Park to safeguard the site. It is recognized that the site is reduced in size and does not have an ideal boundary configuration, as the boundary area ratio is high and the area of park/people contact requires intensive management. There are several narrow corridors between sectors that will create difficulties for movement of wildlife. Due to human disturbance and clearing of vegetation there is little that can be done to expand the area around these constrictions.

The Park boundary is clearly delineated with planted trees and concrete pillars as markers along areas where rivers do not form the boundary. This clear boundary line has mostly stopped encroachment by the local communities, although with increasing population, agricultural encroachment will remain a potential threat. However, community participation programmes have enabled the neighbouring communities to derive various benefits from ecotourism and regulated plant resource use which significantly contributes to improving their livelihoods. There are no commercial activities inside the property other than ecotourism. Bwindi shares a common border with the small (c. 900 ha) protected Sarambwe forest in DRC, into which the gorillas and other species enter at times. This provides an opportunity for population dispersal and gene flow, and an avenue for international collaboration in conserving the region’s endemic and endangered flora and fauna.

Protection and management requirements

Managed by Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA, UWA replaced Uganda National Parks (UNP) that was the management authority of the property at the time of designation), Bwindi is protected under the provisions of various national laws (The Constitution (1995), Uganda Wildlife Act Cap 200 of 2000, National Environment Act (2000), Local Government Act (1997), The Land Act (1998), the Forest and Tree Planting Act 2003 and the Uganda Wildlife Policy (1999). All these laws mentioned above were not in place by the time the property was inscribed as a World Heritage Site. However, the Uganda National Parks Act (1952), and the Game Act were already in place to support its creation) and international conventions (Convention of Biological Diversity 1992 (CBD), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the Ramsar convention 1971 and the World Heritage Convention 1972). The site has an approved management plan and is highly respected and supported by local communities as a conservation site. The property attracts substantial support from a number of local and international NGOs. The Park has a permanent research institute located within the site which is engaged in research and continued monitoring of the site’s integrity. These factors as well as strong political support provide an assurance for the property’s long-term protection and conservation. The management of the site has developed ecotourism programmes that support community livelihoods, a major reason for community support. The Park is a model for integration of community sustainable resource management in the country and possibly in the East African Region. However, there are still strong long-term needs for greater primate protection given the new tendency of trafficking mountain gorilla babies and chimpanzees. As the mountain gorilla is so closely related to people, it is also threatened by transmission of human diseases as a result of tourism activities. UWA is closely monitoring these threats and working with stakeholders and NGOs to mitigate these threats. Continued enhancement of conservation is required in law enforcement and monitoring.

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Основы строительства и постройка постоянного убежища

Когда собраны первые ресурсы и есть небольшой запас продовольствия, пора продолжить прохождение игры Forest и задуматься о постройке основной базы.

Строительство дома — один из ключевых аспектов безопасности главного героя в The Forest. Руководство по выживанию, открыть которое можно нажатием клавиши B (по умолчанию), содержит множество различных построек, начиная от готовых домиков и заканчивая стенами, лестницами и другими сооружениями из которых можно соорудить надёжную базу.

Перед постройкой постоянного убежища необходимо найти подходящее место.

  • Во-первых, стройплощадка должна иметь доступ к строительным ресурсам (древесина, камень). Удобно отстраиваться недалеко от леса. Наличие пресной воды и доступных источников пищи (ягоды, рыба, животные) весьма желательно.
  • Во-вторых, особенности ландшафта можно и нужно использовать в оборонительных целях. Значительно упростить оборону можно построив убежище впритык к воде или на краю утёса. Это даст главному герою серьёзное преимущество в оборонительных сражениях. Минимизировав количество подступов к базе, игроку не придётся распыляться на оборону сразу по всем направлениям.

По возможности следует обнести базу одним или несколькими рядами частокола. Стены надолго замедлят продвижение врагов, защитят главного героя и его ресурсы. Вокруг базы следует расставить ловушки, мгновенно выводящие из строя неприятелей.

Это интересно! Из конечностей аборигенов можно соорудить «мясные» чучела, которые будут отпугивать дикарей. Получить части тел можно нанеся несколько ударов по мёртвому аборигену.

Не стоит сразу строить большую базу. Лучше сначала создать небольшое убежище, а далее расширять его по необходимости. Так опытный игрок сможет избежать излишнего внимания со стороны каннибалов и сэкономит ресурсы, которых поначалу итак будет не хватать.

Следуя советам, приведённым выше, геймер существенно повысит шансы увидеть финал. Данный гайд для игры The Forest рассчитан преимущественно на начинающих игроков. Он раскрывает многие игровые аспекты, оставляя значительную часть секретов и механик на самостоятельное изучение. Ведь именно исследование — это одна из интереснейших сторон игры.

Простой мод, повышающий в игре пресловутый реализм. Собственно, он отвечает за приливы и отливы, случающиеся в течение суток. Стоит отметить, что отлив обнажает приличный кусок пляжа, на котором, если хорошенько порыться, можно что-нибудь найти. А еще он периодически поднимает разбитый парусник, что можно увидеть, подобравшись к нему поближе.

Этот мод не дает вам каких-то особых преимуществ, но играть с ним становится приятнее.

Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation

New — Online Hunter Education Course

From April 15, 2020 until June 30, 2020, you can complete all the requirements to earn a NYS hunter education certificate online. Anyone age 11 or older can take the online course. You must be a New York State resident. If you successfully complete the course, and pass the final exam, you will receive your NY hunter education certificate. The cost of the course is $19.95. The course can be found on the hunter-ed website

Additional requirements for bowhunting big game: If hunting deer or bear with a bow, you must also take a Bowhunter Education course.

*New Hunter Education classes are added continuously throughout the year. Most of the classes are taught between March and September.

*Hunter Education classes are not usually offered between November 1st — February 28th.

*Do not wait until just before the hunting season to take a class. Classes fill quickly, so it is important to sign up early.

Hunting in New York State

New York State contains an extraordinary diversity of wildlife that make a unique contribution to the biodiversity and recreational resources of the state. Wildlife provides rewarding outdoor experiences throughout the state in the form of wildlife viewing, hunting and fishing. According to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), hunting is among the most popular forms of wildlife recreation in the state, drawing nearly 700,000 New Yorkers and over 50,000 out-of-staters. Hunting is a safe and economically important outdoor pursuit, helping to balance wildlife populations, promote family traditions, while fostering an understanding and respect for the environment and the complexity in which it functions.

To be a successful hunter, one must learn about wildlife biology and observe the habits of the species they are pursuing. Many sons and daughters go out each year with their parents to learn the necessary skills of identifying signs of wildlife in the forest and what those different signs mean, such as a rub on a small tree from the antlers of a buck and how long ago the mark was left. Specially-designated seasons for youth hunts are offered, where children (age 12-15) and their guardians hunt without pressure from the regular season.

All New York State hunters must pass one or more state licensed sportsman’s education classes before they can purchase a hunting license. All hunters must report any deer, turkey or bear they harvested along with the sex, date and county. This reporting system helps the NYS DEC to establish statewide population estimates for these species and monitor the hunting program and allowable harvest. Hunters are avid supporters of conservation efforts with the money generated from their licensing fees and taxes on firearms and ammunition going to wildlife species conservation. In addition, hunters generate over 1.5 billion dollars in economic activity in the state.

Hunting within State Parks

New York state lands offer many places to hunt, including 81 parks, 3 historic sites, 3 golf courses and 50 boat launches that provide chances to hunt a variety of different wildlife including big game, small game, turkey, furbearers, waterfowl and migratory bird species.

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